Old Testament Survey
Lesson 22 w/Answers2 Kings and 2 Chronicles
In this lesson, we will continue our study of Kings and Chronicles, looking at the kings and the kingdoms that followed Solomon’s reign.
We will begin our study with a review of the highlights of the interactions between Israel and the surrounding nations during the period of 931 BC – 722 BC, when the Northern Kingdom (Israel) is destroyed by the Assyrians.
- Jeroboam I reigned for 22 years (931-909), and his son Nadab for 2 years (909-908) until he was murdered by Baasha.
- Baasha reigned for 23 years (908-886), and his son Elah for 2 years (886-885) until he was murdered by Zimri.
- Zimri reigned for 7 days (885); then he committed suicide by setting fire to his palace after Omni and the army besieged his hide-out in Tirzah.
- Omri reigned for 12 years (885-874), succeeded by his son Ahab for 22 yrs (874-853), his grandson Ahaziah for 2 years (853-852), and his other grandson Jehoram/Joram (after Ahaziah’s accidental death) for 12 yrs (852-841) until he was killed by Jehu. [Also Tibni contested Omri as king for 5 yrs, but he is not typically included in the list of ruling family dynasties (885-880 co-regency overlap)]
- Jehu reigned for 28 years (841-814), his son Jehoahaz for 17 years (814-798), his grandson Jehoash/Joash for 16 years (798-782), his great-grandson Jeroboam II for 41 years (793-753 co-regency overlap), and his great-great-grandson Zechariah/Zachariah for 6 months until he was murdered by Shallum (753). For his obedience to God in eliminating the cult of Baal worship, Jehu was rewarded with the longest dynasty in Israel’s history—5 generations.
- Shallum reigned for 1 month (752) until he was assassinated by Menahem.
- Menahem reigned for 10 yrs (752-742), and his son Pekahiah for 2 yrs (742-740) until he was assassinated by Pekah.
- Pekah reigned for 20 yrs (752-732 co-regency overlap) until he was murdered by Hoshea.
- Hoshea ruled for 11 yrs (732-722) until Israel fell to the Assyrians.
To help you keep track of and compare the ruling time periods of the various Kings (and Prophets) between the Northern and Southern Kingdoms, I have included a Kings and Prophets study aid, courtesy of Rose Publishing. (This is a large file, and may take a little while to download to your computer.)
The following major events occurred during the time of the Northern Kingdom. Use the scripture cited to fill in the blanks:
- 925 BC - Moab revolts and becomes free.
- 925 BC - Ammon declares freedom from Jeroboam.
- 877 BC - Moab is subjugated by Omri.
- 853 BC - The Moabites, the Ammonites, and "men from Mount Seir", now loosely allied with Ahab in the Northern Kingdom, go against Judah (2 Chronicles 20:1). This coalition goes against Jehoshaphat, but God gives Judah the victory, as the "alliance" breaks down, the attacking nations slaughter each other instead of the men of Judah.
- 850 BC - King Mesha of Moab revolts against the King of Israel and goes free. However, a three-nation coalition is formed to defeat the Moabites. These were the King of Israel (Jehoram), the King of Judah (Jehoshaphat), and the King of Edom. (2 Kings 3:4-27).
- 845 BC - Next, Edom revolts against Judah and gains its freedom (2 Chronicles 21:8-10).
- 794 BC - Finally, Edom is defeated by Amaziah. (2 Chronicles 25:11-13)
- 780 BC - Amaziah and Jeroboam II subjugate all three nations again (Ammon, Edom, and Moab).
- 738 BC - After they rebelled and again become a military and political threat to Judah, Jotham defeated the Ammonites and exacted a tribute from them.(2 Chronicles 27:1-5)
- 735 BC - Edom gains its freedom from Ahaz, the King of Judah. (2 Chronicles 28:17)
- 732 BC - All three nations (Ammon, Moab, and Edom) become Assyrian tributaries.
- 711 BC - Sargon of Assyria invades Moab and actually conquers it. The other two nations (Ammon & Edom) remain Assyrian tributaries.
- 690 BC - Ammon and Moab rebel against the Assyrians however the rebellion is repressed.
- 612 BC - All three nations gain partial freedom when Nineveh is destroyed.
- 607 BC - The Edomites help the Babylonians raid Judah.
- 605 BC - Moab is subjugated by Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar.
- 601 BC - The Edomites become a Babylonian Tributary.
- 581 BC - Moab rebels and is conquered again by the Babylonians.
- 581 BC - The King of Ammon is conquered by the Babylonians.
In the last lesson, we studied about Elijah and his confrontation with the prophets of Baal. We now turn our attention to Elisha.
Read the scripture passages cited below, and answer the following:
- In 2 Kings 2:1-25, what did Elijah do in order for him and Elisha to cross the Jordan on dry ground?
- ANSWER: He struck the river with his garment, and the water separated.
- What did Elisha ask Elijah to grant him before Elijah was taken up to heaven?
- ANSWER: He requested that Elijah grant him a double portion of his spirit (the Spirit of God).
- When Elisha wants to go back across the Jordan on dry land what does he do
- ANSWER: He demonstrates to the witnesses on the other side that he now has the authority and power of Elijah when he again strikes the river with his garment, and it separates for him.
- Continuing in 2 Kings 3:1-27, in utter defeat, what horrible thing does the King of Moab do to his son, who is heir to his throne?
- ANSWER: He offers him up as a burnt sacrifice. From that day forward, there was intense hatred between the Moabites and Israel.
- Read 2 Kings 5:1-27 and briefly describe the healing of Naaman.
- ANSWER: The Captain of the Guard, Naaman, who is over the army of the King of Syria, is struck with leprosy. The King of Syria sends money and garments to the King of Israel asking him to cure the captain of the guard. This scares the King of Israel. Since he believes that he is doomed because he will be unable to heel the Captain. Torn with worry, he rents his garments and this event gets back to Elisha. Elisha tells the King to send Naaman to him to be healed, so that with the healing others will know there is a prophet in Israel. Before he arrives at Elisha’s house, Elisha sends a messenger to meet the Captain and give him specific instructions regarding what to do in order to be healed. Doing so heals Naaman. Elated, he offers Elisha a gift which Elisha refuses.
- What is the sin of Gehazi that follows the healing of Naaman, and what application does this have for us today?
- ANSWER: Greed is the sin, as Gehazi, the right hand man and servant of Elisha, desired the gift from the Captain of the Guard that Elisha had refused. Gehazi secretly solicits and receives money and clothes from Naaman; but Elisha knows of this though his "spirit". When Gehazi is later asked about it, he lies to Elisha. God then causes the leprosy of Naaman to fall on Gehazi. The lesson for us is that we are to serve out of love for our Lord and depend on him to provide for our needs. Gehazi was motivated by the wrong things; he wanted to take care of his own needs through greed rather than allowing God to provide for him.
- In 2 Chronicles 21:4, how did Jehoram (aka, Joram), the King of Judah, secure the throne for himself? Who was his wife, and what was her religion?
- ANSWER: He secured the throne by slaying all of his brothers, and further, by slaying anyone that he viewed as a threat to his ascension to the throne. His wife was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, who brought the worship of Baal to the land; and so Judah’s religion became Baalism.
- The death of Jezebel is described in 2 Kings Chapter 9. How does her death compare with Elijah’s prophecy in 1 Kings 21:21-23?
- ANSWER: It mirrors his prophecy exactly: "The dogs will eat Jezebel in the district of Jezreel." It is recorded that when they went to bury her, they could only find a few fragments of her body, because the dogs had "devoured" her, just as Elijah had prophesied.
And so continues our rapid study through the period of divided kingdoms, covering a lot of material in each lesson; and in each lesson, we are confronted with the evil that prevailed in both kingdoms, when they abandoned their God and chose to worship idols and to follow their own desires. God again brings them to judgment, as the Assyrians destroy the Northern Kingdom in 722 BC. 137 years later, Judah will be punished and Jerusalem destroyed, as the Babylonians bring God’s judgment and punishment to the Southern Kingdom.
May all of us see God as our sovereign God, our sole source of strength, our only provider, and may we see Jesus as our only Savior as we continue to study His Holy Word in the coming weeks. Don’t allow the ways of this world, or the desires of your heart, to separate you from God’s great love and compassion. I encourage you to find someone this week with whom you can share the Good News of His great love and His saving grace!
Thanks for studying with us. Have a great week everyone.